The Biodiversity Agreement Historical But Hard to Execute — Global Issues

Government delegations celebrate the conclusion of historic negotiations at COP15 of the New Global Framework for Biodiversity in the early morning hours of Monday, December 19, at the Palais des Congrès in Montreal, Canada. CREDIT: Mike Muzurakis/IISD
  • by Emilio Godoy (montreal)
  • Associated Press Service

Its fate now depends on the new Kunming-Montreal Global Framework on Biodiversity, agreed by the 15th Conference of the Parties (COP15) of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). on Monday, December 19, at the conclusion of the summit held since December 7 at the Palais des Congrès in Montreal.

Now, countries around the world must translate the results into national biodiversity strategies, in order to comply with the new agreement. In this regard, David Ainsworth, a spokesman for the CBD, which has been in effect since 1993 and is based in Montreal, announced the creation of a global accelerator to draft national plans, with the support of which assistance from United Nations agencies.

Deal menu

COP15 with the theme “Ecological civilization: Building a common future for all life on earth”, adopted 4 goals on improving the state of biodiversity, reducing the extinction of species, equitable and equitable benefit sharing from access to and use of genetic resources, and the means of implementing the agreement.

In addition, the plenary session of the summit, which brought together some 15,000 people representing governments, NGOs, academia, international organizations and companies, agreed on 23 objectives in The Global Framework, to conserve and manage 30% of land area and 30 percent of sea area by 2030, is 30×30 in UN terms.

This includes the complete or partial restoration of at least 30 percent of degraded terrestrial and marine ecosystems, as well as reducing the loss of areas of high biological importance to almost equal to No.

Likewise, the agreement reached by 196 member states at COP15 includes halving food waste, eliminating or reforming at least $500 billion a year in subsidies harmful to biodiversity. and at least $200 billion in biodiversity funding by 2030 from public and private sources.

It also endorses increased financial transfers from the industrialized countries of the North to the developing countries of the South by at least $20 billion by 2025 and $30 billion by 2030, and Voluntary disclosure by companies to monitor, evaluate and publish their impact. biodiversity activities.

The Global Environment Facility (GEF) will administer a new fund, whose activities will be determined by countries over the next two years.

With regard to the digital sequence information (DSI) of genetic resources, the Global Framework provides for the establishment of a multilateral fund for benefit sharing between suppliers and users of genetic resources and states that the The government will determine the final number at COP16 in Turkey in 2024.

The Global Framework also includes gender and youth perspectives, two strong requirements of the process that was originally scheduled to end in Kunming, China in 2020. But because that country did not was able to hold major rallies due to its zero tolerance policy on COVID-19, a first virtual chapter was held there and another later in person, and the final chapter is now live in Montreal.

Member States are required to report at least every five years on their country’s compliance with the Global Framework. The CBD will include country information submitted in February 2026 and June 2029 in its status and trend reports.

With some differences, civil society organizations and indigenous peoples have agreed to the Global Framework, but have issued warnings. Viviana Figueroa, representative of International Indigenous Forum on Biodiversityand Simone Lovera, policy director of Global Forest Alliancewelcomed the agreement in conversations with IPS, while pointing out its risks.

Figueroa, an Omaguaca indigenous lawyer from Argentina, whose organization brings together indigenous groups from around the world, said: “It is a good step forward because it recognizes the role of indigenous peoples, the use of biodiversity and the role of traditional knowledge”. positions at international meetings on the environment.

She added: “It was a long process where indigenous people contributed and made proposals. The most important aspects that we propose have been recognized and we hope to work together with countries.”

However, she commented, “the most important thing will be the execution.”

Goal C and goals one, three, five, nine, 13, 21 and 22 of the Global Framework are concerned with respecting the rights of indigenous and local communities.

Lovera, whose organization brings together NGOs and indigenous groups, said the accord “recognises the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities as well as of women. It also includes a recommendation to withdraw. subsidize and reduce public and private investment in destructive activities, such as – large-scale cattle ranching and oil palm monoculture.”

But indigenous and human rights groups have questioned the 30×30 approach on the grounds that it undermines ancestral rights, blocks access to Aboriginal territories, and requires engagement. informed, informed consent and consultation on protected areas prior to any decision on the future of such areas.

Big challenge

While the Global Framework has indicators and monitoring mechanisms and is legally binding, it has no real value and the precedent of failed Aichi Goals casts a shadow over the future of the country. it, especially given the world’s poor record of international agreements.

The Aichi Biodiversity Goals, which was adopted in 2010 in that Japanese city in the CBD’s COP10 and its 196 member states did not meet in 2020, including the creation of terrestrial and marine protected areas; the fight against pollution and invasive species; respect for indigenous knowledge; and restore damaged ecosystems.

Some estimates put the amount needed to protect biological heritage at $700 billion, which means there is still a huge gap to fill.

For more than 30 years, GEF disbursed more than $22 billion and helped channel another $120 billion to more than 5,000 regional and national projects. For the new period starting in 2023, the fund is counting on about $5 billion in funding.

In addition, the Small Grants Program has supported approximately 27,000 community initiatives in developing countries.

“There’s very little public funding, more is needed,” Lovera said. “It’s sad when they say that the private sector has to fund biodiversity. In Indigenous territories money is needed. They can do more than governments with less money. Can support direct support is more effective and they will meet commitments.”

The activist also criticized the use of offsets, a mechanism by which an area can be destroyed and another restored elsewhere – which has been used in countries like Chile. , Colombia and Mexico.

“This system allows us to destroy 70% of the planet while preserving the remaining 30%,” Lovera said. “It’s crazy. For indigenous peoples and local communities, it’s very negative, because they lose their own biodiversity and the compensation is useless for them, because it happens. out somewhere else.”

Figueroa says organizations that have managed the fund can create mechanisms directly for indigenous people, as was the case with the Small Grants Program.

Belong to 609 commitments that organizations, companies, and individuals have voluntarily launched at COP15, 303 for the conservation and restoration of terrestrial ecosystems, 188 in alliances, and 159 for climate change adaptation and reduce pollutant emissions.

The Summit also coincides with the 10th Meeting of the Conference of the Parties The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and the 4th Meeting of the Conference of the Parties The Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and Fair and Equal Sharing of Benefits from Their Use, both components of CBD.

The image of the planet’s sixth mass extinction reflects the scale of the challenge. More than a quarter of the above 150,000 species IUCN Red Book is threatened with extinction.

The “”Living Planet Report 2022: Building a Positive Society with Nature”prepared by WWF and the Zoological Institute in London, shows that Latin America and the Caribbean have experienced the largest declines in the number of monitored wildlife populations worldwide, with levels of average decrease of 94% from 1970 to 2018.

With a decade to act, more biological wealth is lost with each passing day.

IPS made this article with support from InternsEarth Press Network.

© Inter Press Service (2022) — All rights reservedOrigin: Inter Press Service


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